Environment and Development
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Solar News from Shanghai
Solar Energy Industry Has Been Developed Well
By 2050, the population in the world would increase to 89 billions, and the demand for energy would be triple of the present, among which the renewable energy would account for 50%. Absolutely speaking, the supply for renewable energy in 2050 would be twice of the global energy consumption at present.
The Authorities of China's Energy Industry have expected that by 2050 coal would only supply 30%-50% electricity of the whole national energy consumption and 50%-70% of others would depend on oil, natural gas, hydro power, nucleus power, biomass power and other renewable energy. Due to the limited oil, nucleus and hydro resources, great amount of directly burned biomass power in China would be gradually replaced. Therefore, the estimation on China's renewable energy and how to make use of foreign energy would be crucial to the energy development strategy of China.
Faced with increasingly serious energy crisis and in answer to the call on energy saving, The Action Plan of Development and Utilization of Solar Energy During 2005 to 2007 (Action Plan) was approved by Shanghai Municipal Government, Shanghai Development and Reform Commission, Shanghai Foreign Economic Relation and Trade Commission, Shanghai Science and Technology Commission, Shanghai Construction and Transportation Commission and Shanghai Finance and Taxation Commission. Hope Shanghai could achieve remarkable performance in Solar Energy Utilization and be at the first class of the solar PV power technology and industry in China in 3 to 5 years.
The Action Plan explicitly indicated that recently in Shanghai, Solar Water Heating System would be the core in Solar& Heat Utilization, and solar energy and others would complement each other. PV Power is mainly aimed at developing industry and then set examples in experimental units in application aspects. Rest home, hospital, school, office building and low house etc., are the main objects for solar energy application and experimental towns, high-tech districts are key experimental areas.
According to the new Action Plan, the application aim of Shanghai solar energy development is to install construction-combined solar water heating system of 100 thousands square meter of the area of heat collection by 2007 and at that time, the exemplary project of PV power system could be more than 5MW. The industrial target is to have the ability of producing PV modules of 150-200MW, Piece of PV modules of 100-150MW and achieving 10-billion RMB production value by 2007, striving to develop the PV industry as the new increasing point of Shanghai advanced manufacturing industrial.
From the Economist - Economist's blogs
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Articles by subject: Topics: Economics
FINANCE & ECONOMICS
The invisible hand on the keyboard
Aug 3rd 2006
From The Economist print edition
Why do economists spend valuable time blogging?
Like millions of others, economists from circles of academia and public policy spend hours each day writing for nothing. The concept seems at odds with the notion of economists as intellectual instruments trained in the maximisation of utility or profit. Yet the demand is there: some of their blogs get thousands of visitors daily, often from people at influential institutions like the IMF and the Federal Reserve. One of the most active "econobloggers" is Brad DeLong, of the University of California, Berkeley, whose site, delong.typepad.com, features a morning-coffee videocast and an afternoon-tea audiocast in which he holds forth on a spread of topics from the Treasury to Trotsky.
Gary Becker, a Nobel-prize winning economist, and Richard Posner, a federal circuit judge and law professor, began a joint blog in 2004. The pair, colleagues at the University of Chicago, believed that their site, becker-posner-blog.com, would permit "instantaneous pooling (and hence correction, refinement, and amplification) of the ideas and opinions, facts and images, reportage and scholarship, generated by bloggers." The practice began as an educational tool for Greg Mankiw, a professor of economics at Harvard and a former chairman of George Bush's Council of Economic Advisers. His site, gregmankiw.blogspot.com, started as a group e-mail sent to students, with commentary on articles and new ideas. But the market for his musings grew beyond the classroom, and a blog was the solution. "It's a natural extension of my day job-to engage in intellectual discourse about economics," Mr Mankiw says.
With professors spending so much time blogging for no payment, universities might wonder whether this detracts from their value. Although there is no evidence of a direct link between blogging and publishing productivity, a new study* by E. Han Kim and Adair Morse, of the University of Michigan, and Luigi Zingales, of the University of Chicago, shows that the internet's ability to spread knowledge beyond university classrooms has diminished the competitive edge that elite schools once held.
The faster flow of information and the waning importance of location-which blogs exemplify-have made it easier for economists from any university to have access to the best brains in their field. That anyone with an internet connection can sit in on a virtual lecture from Mr DeLong means that his ideas move freely beyond the boundaries of Berkeley, creating a welfare gain for professors and the public.
Universities can also benefit in this part of the equation. Although communications technology may have made a dent in the productivity edge of elite schools, productivity is hardly the only measure of success for a university. Prominent professors with popular blogs are good publicity, and distance in academia is not dead: the best students will still seek proximity to the best minds. When a top university hires academics, it enhances the reputations of the professors, too. That is likely to make their blogs more popular.
Self-interest lives on, as well. Not all economics bloggers toil entirely for nothing. Mr Mankiw frequently plugs his textbook. Brad Setser, of Roubini Global Economics, an economic-analysis website, is paid to spend two to three hours or so each day blogging as a part of his job. His blog, rgemonitor.com/blog/setser, often concentrates on macroeconomic topics, notably China. Each week, 3,000 people read it-more than bought his last book. "I certainly have not found a comparable way to get my ideas out. It allows me to have a voice I would not otherwise get," Mr Setser says. Blogs have enabled economists to turn their microphones into megaphones. In this model, the value of influence is priceless.
* "Are Elite Universities Losing Their Competitive Edge?" by E. Han Kim, Adair Morse and Luigi Zingales. NBER working paper 12245, May 2006.
Copyright © 2006 The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group. All rights reserved.
Erklaerungsnoete / Problems to justify German development aid to China ...
... I have the impression to make a good case for still supporting China is not an easy business ... but they try hard ...
ENTWICKLUNGFSHILFE/POLITIK: Regierung: Entwicklungshilfe an China in deutschem Interesse.
Die Bundesregierung hat anl?sslich des China-Besuchs von Kanzlerin Angela Merkel die fortlaufende deutsche Entwicklungshilfe f?r das wirtschaftlich rasant wachsende Schwellenland verteidigt. "Ich m?chte darauf hinweisen, dass sich das Volumen der deutschen Zahlungen im Rahmen der Entwicklungszusammenarbeit seit 1998 halbiert hat", sagte Regierungssprecher Ulrich Wilhelm der Nachrichtenagentur Reuters am Montag auf Anfrage. Waren es vor acht Jahren noch 135 Millionen Euro, die an China flossen, seien es inzwischen nur noch 68 Millionen Euro. Zudem w?rden ?ber 50 Prozent der aktuellen Zusagen als Darlehen gew?hrt. Dar?ber hinaus h?tten sich die Schwerpunkte gravierend ge?ndert. Heute stehe die F?rderung einer nachhaltigen Wirtschaftsentwicklung, etwa beim Umwelt- und Ressourcenschutz, aber auch beim Rechtsstaatsdialog im Zentrum der Hilfe. Die entwicklungspolitische Zusammenarbeit erstrecke sich auch auf Fragen der Wirtschafts- und Strukturreformen. Wilhelm wies darauf hin, dass China inzwischen weltweit der zweitgr??te Emittent von Kohlendioxid sei. Dass Deutschland auf diesem Feld mit China zusammenarbeite, liege in seinem ureigensten Interesse. Gleiches gelte in Hinblick auf eine bessere Einbindung Chinas in die L?sung globaler Probleme. Der Regierungssprecher erg?nzte, Umfang und Zielrichtung der Entwicklungshilfe w?rden fortlaufend ?berpr?ft. Einige Unionspolitiker hatten vor Merkels Besuch kritisiert, dass Deutschland noch immer Entwicklungshilfe an das zum wirtschaftlichen Riesen herangewachsene China zahle.
http://de.today.reuters.com/news/newsArticle.aspx?type=domesticNews&storyID=2006-05-22T135554Z_01_HAG250143_RTRDEOC_0_DEUTSCHLAND-CHINA-ENTWICKLUNGSHILFE.xml, Zugriff 23.05.2006, 060522_reuters_entwicklungshilfe.pdf
Bad government again...
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
The kindest cut
May 25th 2006
From The Economist print edition
Cutting down trees could be the best way to preserve tropical forests
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DEPRESSING reports about how quickly the world's tropical forests are being felled are commonplace. But depressing reports about the state of the trees that are still standing are much rarer. In fact, a new study from the International Tropical Timber Organisation (ITTO), an offshoot of the United Nations, claims to be the first exhaustive survey of tropical-forest management ever undertaken. Its findings, although grim, do contain a kernel of hope.
The ITTO examined "permanent forest estate", meaning land that the governments of its 33 members have formally set aside for forests, and is therefore subject to some form of regulation or protection. The category includes both national parks and timber concessions, in both public and private hands. It covers 814m hectares, and accounts for roughly two-thirds of the world's tropical forests.
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International Tropical Timber Organisation
The concept is important, explains Duncan Poore, one of the authors of the report, because it is not always possible, or desirable, to protect every last grove against encroaching farms or homes. Instead, governments should concentrate on maintaining the forests that are the most commercially and scientifically valuable. Yet the ITTO's researchers found that only 15% of the permanent forest estate has a management plan, and less than 5% of it is sustainably managed. That still amounts to an area the size of Germany, the report notes, and represents a dramatic improvement since 1988, when an earlier and less extensive survey found that only one country in the tropics-Trinidad and Tobago-had any well-run forests at all. But relative to the area of forest that has disappeared over the same period, the well-managed area is negligible.
The crux is bad government. Poor countries do not always have good forestry laws. Even when they do, they rarely have the capacity to enforce them. It is no coincidence that Malaysia, the country with the highest proportion of prudently managed forest in the study, is also one of the richest. Countries with the worst run forests, meanwhile, are war-torn places such as Congo and Cambodia.
More surprising, perhaps, is the difference the report found between forests where logging is allowed, and those that have been earmarked for conservation. Some 7% of "production" forests, it turns out, are in good shape, compared with just 2.4% of "protection" forests. As Dr Poore points out, it is easy to undertake to preserve a forest, but difficult to do so in practice. Timber concessionaires at least have an incentive (and probably the wherewithal) to look after their property, while ill-paid and ill-equipped forestry officials often have neither. Exploiting forests may prove the best way to preserve them.
Copyright ? The Economist Newspaper Limited 2006. All rights
TIME Magazine Feature - global warming and extinction
QUIVER TREE This striking giant aloe was given its
name by the San people of southern Africa, who use
the tree's hollow branches as quivers for their
arrows. Scientists have discovered that quiver trees
are starting to die off in parts of their traditional
range. The species might be in the early stages of
moving southward, trying to escape rising
temperatures closer to the equator.
PINON MOUSE This tiny resident of the
southwestern U.S. has long eked out its living in
juniper woodlands, but in California it is heading for
higher, cooler altitudes in the High Sierra conifer
forests. The mouse is one of several small
mammals in the region that have moved their homes
1,000 to 3,000 ft. higher in elevation over the past century.
RED-BREASTED GOOSE Twenty-six bird species, including this goose, which breeds in
the Arctic, are listed by the World Conservation Union as threatened by global warming.
Half are seabirds whose food supplies are diminished because of climate changes. The
rest are terrestrial species, including several whose coastal habitats are at risk because
of rising sea levels.
AFRICAN ELEPHANT Global warming might not only shrink the elephant's range within
Africa but may also wreak havoc with the animal's love life. The relative abundance--or
scarcity--of food affects the social hierarchy of the herd, which in turn can determine
which animals get to breed.
BUTTERFLIES Researchers have documented shifts in the ranges of many butterflies.
One study looked at 35 species of nonmigratory butterflies whose ranges extended from
northern Africa to northern Europe. The scientists found that two-thirds of the species
had shifted their home ranges northward by 20 to 150 miles. In the U.S., researchers
have closely tracked the movements of the butterfly known as Edith's checkerspot (at
right, middle). Though butterflies might be sturdier than they look, scientists believe many
species will not survive the impact of climate change.
KING PROTEA It is the national flower of South Africa, just one among the many
spectacular members of the large family of flowering plants named after Proteus, a
Greek god capable of changing his shape at will. Scientists fear that more than a third of
all Proteaceae species could disappear by 2050.
MISTLETOE The limber pine dwarf mistletoe is proliferating throughout western forests
TIME Magazine Archive Article -- Feeling The Heat -- Apr. 03, 2006 http://www.time.com/time/archive/preview/0,10987,1176986,00.html
2 von 3 04.04.2006 03:47
in North America, thanks to heat and drought-weakened trees that act as perfect hosts
for this botanical parasite. It's not unlike what happens in your body, says researcher
Connie Millar of the U.S. Forest Service: "When your system is stressed, you're more
vulnerable to all kinds of things that want to get you."
FROGS Amphibians have been hopping, swimming and crawling about the planet for
350 million years. But their future is hardly assured. A global assessment of the state of
this entire class of vertebrates found that nearly one-third of the 5,743 known species are
in serious trouble. Climate change may well be the culprit in most cases, either directly or
indirectly. The home habitat of the golden toad (at right, bottom) in Costa Rica moved up
the mountain until "home" disappeared entirely. More than two-thirds of the 110 species
of colorful harlequin frogs in Central and South America, two shown above, have also
disappeared. Scientists believe that what killed many of the harlequins and what
threatens a great many other amphibian species is a disease caused by the fungus
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. Climate change seems to be making frogs more
vulnerable to infection by the fungus.
What troubles scientists especially is that if we are only in the early stages of warming, all
these lost and endangered animals might be just the first of many to go. One study
estimates that more than a million species worldwide could be driven to extinction by the
-With reporting by with reporting by Dan Cray/ Los Angeles
China and Int'l Forest Trade and Logging
JAKARTA - China is a major conduit and the United States, Japan and European Union key markets for furniture and wood products from countries where illegal logging is common and human rights records are poor, a new report says.
The report issued on Friday, "China and the Global Market for Forest Products", is based on five years of research by Forest Trends, the Centre for International Forestry Research, the Centre for Chinese Agricultural Policy, and other groups.
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BMU und BMWi Statusbericht zur Energieversorgung
Energieversorgung für Deutschland
Statusbericht für den Energiegipfel am 3. April 2006
In diesen Zeiten wird deutlicher als bisher sichtbar, wie sehr unser Land auf eine sichere, wirtschaftliche und umweltverträgliche Energieversorgung angewiesen ist. Die weltweit schnell wachsende Energienachfrage führt zu steigenden Energie- und Strompreisen. Diese belasten die Privathaushalte und machen vor allem energieintensiven Unternehmen im weltweiten Wettbewerb zu schaffen. Deutschland ist in hohem Maße von Energieimporten abhängig, Öl und Gas beziehen wir aus wenigen - politisch teilweise instabilen - Förderregionen. Der weltweit wachsende Energieverbrauch führt auch zu einer Zunahme der Emissionen von Treibhausgasen. Die damit einhergehende Erwärmung der Atmosphäre erhöht die Wahrscheinlichkeit drastischer Folgen für Mensch und Natur. Erforderlich ist ein Gesamtkonzept, das Versorgungssicherheit, tragbare Energiekosten sowie wirksamen Klimaschutz in effizienter Weise miteinander verknüpft und eine Richtung für die anstehenden Investitionen in unsere Energieversorgung vorgibt. Der Statusbericht bestätigt die Notwendigkeit einer derart integrierten Strategie.
Mit dem vorliegenden Statusbericht werden die Fakten und Zahlen zur Energieversorgung dargestellt. Sie machen insbesondere deutlich, in welchem Maße unsere Energieversorgung in die globalen Rohstoffmärkte und in den europäischen Binnenmarkt für Energie eingebunden ist. Der Bericht enthält eine Bestandsaufnahme der aktuellen Situation sowie eine Vorschau auf den Zeitraum bis 2020. Auf der Grundlage der Zahlen und Fakten werden in einem zweiten Schritt die Herausforderungen beschrieben, die sich daraus für die Modernisierung unserer Energieversorgung ergeben.